Sannai Melam and Nadaswaram are traditional South Indian musical instruments that are commonly used in various cultural and religious events, especially in the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana.

1. Sannai Melam

Sannai Melam is a wind instrument and is similar to the Shehnai or Pungi. It is made of brass and consists of a conical wooden body with a metal mouthpiece. The sound is produced by blowing air into the instrument while the musician uses fingers to cover and uncover the holes on the body. Sannai Melam is known for its high-pitched, vibrant, and penetrating sound. It is traditionally played in weddings, temple festivals, and other auspicious occasions.

2. Nadaswaram

Nadaswaram is one of the oldest known wind instruments in India and is considered as a divine instrument. It is a double-reed instrument with a long cylindrical wooden body, usually made from a type of wood called aacha. The mouthpiece of the Nadaswaram is made of a metal plate called a "mukhadwaram," which is fixed to the body. The sound is produced by blowing air through the reeds while manipulating the finger holes. Nadaswaram has a rich, resonant sound and is often played in temples, classical music concerts, and processions during religious festivals.

Both Sannai Melam and Nadaswaram are played in ensembles consisting of multiple instruments and percussion, creating a lively and festive atmosphere. They are an integral part of South Indian classical music and play a significant role in various cultural and religious ceremonies, adding a traditional and spiritual touch to the events.